Russian Orthodox churches, stunning scenery, and cute furry sea otters. All in one thirty-minute episode. Hooray! Sadly, as Michael Portillo, resplendent in a burnt orange jacket and royal blue trousers, and his guides made clear, the history of Alaska is nothing like as beautiful as the views – an all-too-familiar story of native peoples and native wildlife populations decimated by the effects of outside involvement. Lots of history in this first episode, along with lots of gorgeous scenery – in what is by far the biggest of the United States, seven times the size of the United Kingdom, but with a population of under 750,000.
First up, Ninilchik, with its glorious Russian Orthodox church. I like Russian Orthodox churches 🙂 . Founded by Russian settlers in the 1840s, it’s now an officially-designated Alaska Native village, and most of the people there, including the gentleman who showed Michael round, are of mixed Alaska Native and Russian heritage. The man explained that many of the Russian men who came to Alaska – the first settlers arriving in the 1780s – married Alaska Native women, and a joint culture developed.
Sadly, whilst this talk of intermarriage and a mixed culture sounded all very nice, it was explained that the Russian period was actually disastrous for the indigenous population. As happened when Spanish conquistadors and settlers arrived in Central and South America, and in so many other cases, the native peoples, with no immunity to European diseases, was devastated by disease. They were also treated appallingly by the Russians – first forced labour, then actual enslavement, especially in the Aleutian Islands where disease, conflict and slavery killed up to 85% of the population.
From there, we got a bit of light relief, as he visited another area with Russian heritage, where there was a Russian tearoom. There used to be a Russian tearoom in Bacup. Then it moved to Skipton. Then it closed down, and I was very put out. Anyway, this one’s still going – and we got the obligatory dressing up bit which Michael seems to like to include in most episodes. More interesting than the dressing up were the samovars. I love samovars. And even more interesting than the samovars was the fact that the owner of the tearoom was an Old Believer. Sadly, the programme failed to mention, presumably largely because it would have been totally irrelevant, the fact that some Old Believers back in Russia became involved with the textile industry and therefore established links with Lancashire; but I’m mentioning it because I like telling people that. Yes, I do know that I’m about the only person on the planet who finds that interesting, but Old Believers in general are very interesting.
Moving swiftly on, before I start going on about the Schism of 1653, the current goings-on over the new Ukrainian Orthodox Church, or anything else. On to Seward, where, whilst sailing round Resurrection Bay amid the most spectacular views of snow-covered mountains, Michael and his guide discussed the Alaska Purchase – made by the United States from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million, in 1867.
Russian explorers first made landfall in Alaska in 1741, with the first Russian settlement there being established in 1784, and the Russian-American Company getting stuck into the incredibly lucrative fur trade. I always think of the most valuable furs as having come from Canadian beavers, and was interested to hear that those from Alaskan sea otters were considered better. Obviously wearing fur is not acceptable now, but it was such a huge trade at the time … but things didn’t go as well as the Russians had hoped. Conflict with the native peoples, who bravely resisted Russian settlement, competition from British-Canadian and American companies, and, above all, the stupid, thoughtless, over-hunting of fur-bearing animals, with no thought for what was going to happen in the future.
So. 1867. Two years after the end of the American Civil War. Eleven years after Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War, six years after the sort-of-emancipation of the serfs, four years after the outbreak of the Polish-Lithuanian rebellion. And a year after the attempted assassination that, along with the rebellion, probably frightened Alexander II off continuing along a liberal, reformist path – and he, the Tsar-Liberator did so much, with the military, the judiciary, and the administration. Not to mention the fact that the Russian government was skint after the Crimean War, and needed money to pay off landowners (after emancipation) and build railways. And in the middle of the Great Game, with Russia stressing that Britain might try to take Alaska … which I think was very unlikely to happen, because Britain was far more worried about Russia trying to barge into India, and had already made it clear that we didn’t want Alaska. Anyway. Russia decided to sell.
And America decided to buy. William Seward, who negotiated the Alaska Purchase with the Russians, was an interesting character. I think of him primarily in terms of his role in Abraham Lincoln’s cabinet, but he was involved in anti-slavery activities long before the Civil War, and, whilst some early Republicans had Know-Nothing backgrounds, he’d always spoken out in support of immigrants and backed the rights of non-Protestants.
As was pointed out, Seward said that the Alaska Purchase was his greatest achievement. It certainly turned out to be a brilliant deal for the Americans. Seal fisheries, to start with. Poor seals 😦 . And then all that gold. Not to mention all the other minerals there. And, of course, the oil fields. The Russians found some gold in the 1840s, but, bizarrely, didn’t do anything about it. Barely three years after the American takeover, gold mining began in earnest, and, come the 1890s, it all just went wild.
That was years later, though. At the time, it seems to have been far more about the infamous concept of Manifest Destiny. And the Americans seem to have been as concerned as the Russians about keeping the British out. Those were the days, when Britain had a strong government and a strong opposition! Canada – and the Alaska Purchase took place in the same year as Canadian Confederation – was already part of the British Empire, so I’m not sure why the Americans thought it would make that much difference if Britain were to take Alaska. Well, the idea seems to have been to weaken British Columbia by sandwiching it between two parts of American territory, but I’m not sure what they thought was actually going to happen … but anyway. Anglo-American relations were pretty bad at that time, Britain having the needle about US agents having illegally captured two Confederate diplomats from a British ship in 1861 (I remember once writing about that in my rough book whilst not paying attention during a maths lesson when I was about 15. I was a very weird teenager!) and the US having the needle about Confederate warships having been built in Birkenhead.
The deal wasn’t entirely popular in America at the time, with some people feeling that the money would have been better spent on Reconstruction. Having seen, on my travels through some of the southern states, how places like Natchez and Memphis have never really recovered from the Civil War, there’s certainly a very strong argument in favour of that … but, from a wider economic viewpoint, Seward made the right choice.
Well, he did from an American viewpoint. Oh, and Michael didn’t go into nearly all this much detail, in last night’s thirty minute episode, but I’m just indulging myself because I love writing about both Imperial Russia and 1860s America 🙂 . From a Russian viewpoint, with the benefit of hindsight, it was a pretty bad move. As Michael remarked, imagine how different the Cold War might have been if Alaska had been part of the Soviet Union. For that matter, imagine the effect on today’s geopolitical situation of Alaska being part of Putin’s Russian Federation rather than Trump’s United States.
All of which rather ignores the fact that the land wasn’t Russia’s to sell – and Michael, who was being shown around Seward and its environs by an Alaska Native gentleman, did make that quite clear. There were only a few hundred Russians there at the time, and yet Russia sold, and America bought, land on which around 50,000 indigenous people were living, and neither side seems to have given two hoots about the rights or views of those indigenous people.
This was only the first episode, and I would like to think that future episodes will explain that the American treatment of the Alaska Natives was also pretty shocking. The territory (for lack of a better expression – it wasn’t even an official “territory” until 1912, and only became a state in 1959) was initially put under military control, and, as was done elsewhere in America, attempts were made to convert the native peoples to Christianity and to Americanise their way of life, and Alaska Natives were not granted US citizenship until 1921. I’m not having a go at either the United States or Russia, any more than at Britain or many other countries, but these issues need to be raised, and raising them in popular TV programmes is far more helpful than pulling down statues or
And the over-hunting also continued under American control. It was also interesting to hear that concerns were raised in Michael’s guidebook published in 1899, about rising temperatures and the retreat of the glaciers. I grew up in the 1980s, when we kept hearing all about acid rain and the hole in the ozone layer, and we tended to think of concern about climate change as being a fairly new thing. Evidently not.
One thing that wasn’t mentioned (I wonder if it might come up in a later episode?), which was incredibly controversial, was that, after Kristallnacht, there was a proposal by the US Department of the Interior to settle refugees from Nazi Germany in Alaska – which, as Alaska wasn’t a state at that time, could have been done without causing issues with the very unpleasant US immigration quota system. The idea, which was intended more to boost the American presence in Alaska than to help refugees, didn’t go down very well and nothing ever came of it, but I just thought that that, and the German settlements set up along the Volga at the same time as Russia was first getting involved in Alaska, were worth a thought … at a time when there are so many people living in refugee camps around the world. /irrelevant point that just occurred to me.
Anyway – from 19th century history to the aforementioned cute furry sea otters. Michael visited a wildlife centre, where he got to feed an extremely cute rescued sea otter pup. It’s good to know that sea otter numbers are now making a comeback. It’s causing some issues with fishermen (that should probably be “fisherpeople”, but even so.
From Seward, he (Michael, not the sea otter) took a wonderfully scenic railway journey towards the Spencer Glacier. I would so love to do that! The Alaska Railroad was built in the early 20th century, and Michael was told that, rather than being to transport gold, it was more a case of needing a way of transporting coal. Gorgeous views. And, hey, this is technically supposed to be a programme about railway journeys, not a historical documentary series! Fascinating though the history of late 18th and 19th century Alaska is, it was all fairly gloomy, and it was good that the programme ended on a more cheerful note, with these spectacular views.
I have to admit that I wasn’t sure how a journey through Alaska was going to fill a whole week’s worth of episodes. That’s quite a bit of screen time. But, on the basis of last night’s episode, Alaska’s got more than enough to fill all that time and more. And keep up the good work with including lots of history in there :-). History and scenery together – excellent combination!