Back in Time for School – BBC 2 (episode 3)

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The third episode of this fascinating series was as interesting as the first two, but also rather irritating in parts.  The BBC seemed determined to mock and criticise most things about 1950s grammar schools, rather than letting either pupils or viewers make up their own minds; and the kids got a bit snowflake-ish for the first time – I had to laugh when one of them asked if the free school milk provided by the post-war government was semi-skimmed, and another complained that there was no alternative offered.  And it really threw me to realise that we’re now as far from the 1980s/early 1990s as the 1980s/early 1990s were from the 1950s.  That’s frightening!  That is really, really frightening!  Still a great episode, though.

My mum and dad both went to grammar schools in the 1950s.  They both went on to further education, which none of my grandparents had done.  A lot of families across the UK can tell similar stories: grammar schools offered incredible opportunities to many people who would not have had those opportunities without them.  So I’ve always had a very positive image of the grammar school system.  However, I have to say that I hadn’t realised that grammar school provision was so uneven across the country – the programme said that 35% of children were able to attend grammar schools in some parts of the South East, but only 10% in Nottingham – nor, which certainly wasn’t the case round here, that in some areas there were far more places available for boys than for girls.

Fair point about the system not exactly being ideal, but I still felt that the BBC was being deliberately negative.  They put a lot of emphasis on lessons on deportment and elocution, which I’ve never heard anyone who went to grammar schools in the 1950s mention, and it was made to sound as if the schools were trying to drive a wedge between the children and their families.  I’ve never heard anyone say that that was their experience of grammar schools.

There was a lot of negativity about the actual lessons, as well.  The impression given was that grammar school pupils were just expected to sit in silence, copy things down from the blackboard (are you still allowed to use the word “blackboard”?) and learn them by rote.  Consequently, the kids and the teachers did nothing but complain about it.  Er, no, BBC – I don’t think so!  Does anyone seriously believe that that was how all grammar school lessons were taught?

Having said which, I quite like the idea of sitting in silence in class!  I wouldn’t speak in lessons in secondary school, because I was always convinced that everyone would laugh at me, so sitting in silence and learning things off by heart would have suited me quite nicely 🙂 , and saved me from getting all those comments at parents’ evenings and on school reports about how I wouldn’t speak up in class … although it certainly didn’t reflect anything I’ve ever been told by people who were educated at grammar schools in the 1950s.  I wouldn’t have liked the hats, though.  I think my school did away with hats in the 1970s, so, mercifully, we didn’t have to wear them in my day!  And why were the male teachers wearing hats indoors?  Isn’t it incredibly bad manners for a man to wear a hat indoors, unless it’s for religious reasons?!

OK, enough moaning!  They did at least manage to point out that grammar schools offered a lot of opportunities for girls.  Most of the lessons we saw were with the girls, whilst we saw the boys taking part in the school harvest scheme, helping to pick fruit.  I love fruit-picking and would rather have enjoyed that … but they didn’t get paid much, and the idea eventually died off.  We also, as already mentioned, heard about the provision of free school milk.  And, no, it wasn’t semi-skimmed, and there was no alternative for kids who didn’t drink milk!!

The series is doing a superb job of tracing the way in which schools have been the conduit for trying to improve children’s health; and we also heard about school dinners, and how they were nutritionally balanced, and, of course, off ration … if not necessarily very nice.  And how kids were made to stay in the dining room until they’d finished what was on their plate.  That brought back memories!  It didn’t happen at my secondary school, and we were allowed to take out own food after the first two years of secondary school anyway, but they used to try it at primary school!  One lad, who was incredibly fussy and hardly ate anything other than bananas, must have been kept behind every day.  It didn’t work: he still wouldn’t eat the school dinners.  No-one ever succeeded in getting me to eat rice pudding, either.  We didn’t get free school milk, though.  Maggie Thatcher had done away with it by then.

And they’re also making a big effort to include a variety of activities in these programmes, rather than just focusing on what actually went on in the classrooms.  No rifle training in this one, but we did get the cycling proficiency test.  Ugh!  Now that really did bring back bad memories!  By my day, in the 1980s, cycling proficiency tests were taken at primary school.  Only four kids in the entire class failed; and of course I – the person who later went on to fail four driving tests, before finally passing at the fifth attempt! – was one of them.  I can remember who two of the others were, but, annoyingly, I can’t remember who the fourth one was.  That’s bugging me now.

I’m quite sure that they’ve all long since forgotten about it, but, being someone who’s had a lifetime of anxiety issues, I took it to mean that I was useless.  On top of that, I shortly afterwards got a lecture from a doctor about how fat I was, and how I needed to take more exercise, like cycling … so the cycling proficiency test trauma got tangled up in my mind with being a fat failure.  I was a seriously mixed-up ten-year-old!   However, I’m probably the only person in the entire world who’s ever been traumatised by the cycling proficiency test: I’m just strange!  Most of the kids in this seemed to enjoy it, even though teenagers riding bikes is fairly rare these days.  It was pointed out that a lot of teenagers used to cycle to school in the 1950s.  That’s unusual now.

Next up came the use of projectors.  My secondary school was still using projectors in the 1980s!  Mainly for French lessons, for some reason.  Languages weren’t  mentioned in this episode: instead, the girls had to watch a cringeworthy sex education programme about a girl called Susan whose mum was having another baby.  Well, at least something was being explained to them: you hear stories about girls who knew nothing on that subject even when they got married.  Strangely, this was for girls only.  No such lessons for boys.  That was … interesting.  Was it assumed that boys would find out elsewhere, or that boys just didn’t need to know about babies?

Most of this episode involved separate activities for girls and boys, and we saw the boys being made to do cross country running.  When we were little kids, my sister and I used to refer to some tunnels which could be seen in the distance from a nearby park as “Daddy’s running tunnels”, because we knew that Dad had had past those tunnels as part of school cross country running.  They were miles from where what used to be the local boys’ grammar school was!  Poor Dad 🙂 .  None of the boys in this seemed overly keen on cross country running, and the teacher said that he hadn’t got very fond memories of it either!

After that, the BBC had to get CND in there.  I’m not sure how big a part CND actually played at grammar schools: I suspect not nearly as much as the BBC made it seem that they did.  Then we got 1950s milk bars, and some lovely 1950s music, which was good fun.  The verdict of the children was that out of school time was starting to feel much more modern, but that what actually happened in school seemed a long way in the past.  It didn’t to me, which made me feel old!

It was good to hear their views, but I felt that the BBC generally tried to give a very one-sided, negative, view of the grammar school system.  However, they did invite Joan Bakewell, who went to Stockport Grammar School for Girls, to speak about her experiences, and she gave both sides to the story, explaining that going to grammar school had opened up a   world of opportunity for her, but that her sister hadn’t passed the eleven plus and had missed out on them.  I don’t know what the answer to the grammar school debate is, but I wish the BBC hadn’t tried so hard to tell us, instead of letting us decide.  All the same, it was another interesting episode.  A lot of people seem to be talking about this series, and that’s always a sign that it’s worth watching!

 

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Back in Time for School – BBC 2 (second episode)

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Much of this second episode, covering the inter-war period, felt like “the BBC does Girls’ Own” 🙂 .  Country dancing, the importance of modern foreign languages, compulsory naps, the evils of heedlessness and disobedience, the open air school movement, kids being told that they had to “talk posh”  … yes, this all sounded very familiar to fans of 1920s/30s-era school stories.  We also got women’s football, forest schools, and – bringing back horrible memories! – school medicals.

First up, Esperanto lessons!   The programme made it sound as if Classical Greek and Latin had been the only languages taught in schools before the Great War, which wasn’t quite right, but there was certainly a big shift towards modern foreign languages in the 1920s.  As the pupils perceptively pointed out, this also showed a shift towards internationalism and seeking greater understanding of other cultures.  It just screamed “Chalet School” 🙂 ! Except that, instead of learning French or German, the kids were learning Esperanto.

Esperanto was a brilliant idea. OK, the idea of trying to replace people’s first languages, which are an incredibly important part of history and culture, was terrible;  but the idea of everyone speaking a common second language was brilliant.  Ludwik Zamenhof, its creator, grew up in an area where six languages (Yiddish, Russian, Polish, Belarusian, German and Lithuanian, and thus three language groups and three alphabets) were used.  I read a lot of Eastern European history and I actually find places like that fascinating.  Just so gloriously confusing!!  There are towns in what’s now Ukrainian Galicia which have names in Yiddish, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak!  However, it probably wasn’t quite so fascinating to be living there, under what must have effectively been a system of linguistic apartheid.   Anyway, sadly, Esperanto never caught on.

In between teaching Esperanto, the teacher was reading a book about school discipline, which was teeming with words like “heedlessness” and “disobedience”, all greatly beloved by GO authors. Does anyone still use the word “heedless”?  Great word!  We then moved on to School Certificates, which, whilst they always make me think of Alicia in the (post-war) Malory Towers books, played a big part in improving social mobility by giving working-class children a chance to go to university … if the family finances allowed, which, unfortunately, they usually didn’t.

Then school medicals. Ugh.  I apologise in advance for going off on a rant here, but it seems like, every time I put the TV or radio on at the moment, some patronising person is going on about how kids being fat is the worst problem facing our society.  Never mind the fact that some families are struggling so much that kids are being found scavenging through school bins for food: no-one seems interested in that.  Only in stigmatising overweight kids.

Our school medicals, in the late 1980s, were carried out by the visiting school nurse. She was very nice, but, if you were a fat kid, like I was, she put you on what was known as “The List”.  Capital T, capital L. Then, every so often, you would be sent a nasty little note telling you that you had to go to the medical room to be weighed.  This would be during lesson time, so you’d have to ask to be excused.  It was so humiliating.  Even worse, during the first few years of secondary school, we were weighed at the start of every term by the sadistic PE teacher.  She could easily have written everyone’s weight down herself, but, in order to maximise the humiliation, she would ask one of the kids – invariably someone very slim – to write them down.  And she would bellow out your weight at the top of her voice, so that most of the kids who were waiting could hear.  It was absolutely horrendous.  Kids would skip breakfast, and, if the weigh-in was in the afternoon, sometimes skip dinner as well, in the hope of making themselves a pound or two lighter.

I really hope that all the people who keep harping on about the evils of kids being overweight understand all the mental health problems that they’re storing up for the future by destroying children’s confidence and making them feel that overweight kids are second-class citizens. That feeling never goes away.  Anyway, sorry, rant over!  In the inter-war years, of course, it wasn’t obesity that was the issue, but malnutrition – and so the idea of weighing and measuring children at school was genuinely well-meant.  We were told that the average height of the class in this programme was nine inches taller than the average height of working-class children of the same age in the 1920s.  We also saw the kids having the circumferences of their head measured … but let’s not go there, because it smacks of eugenics.

As I said about the first episode, there was genuine concern about the nation’s health, following the publication of reports into poverty and also, in particular, because of the poor physical condition of many of the young men joining the Armed Forces.   As well as the horrible medicals, children in the inter-war years were dosed with cod liver oil, which famously tastes disgusting but is actually very good for you.  The Open Air School movement, which inspired some of the storylines in the recently-published The Chalet School Annexe, reviewed here, was also discussed.  A much better idea than the horrific school weigh-ins!  So too were compulsory naps, which come up in Monica Turns Up Trumps.  The idea of having a rest in the middle of the day seems quite attractive now 🙂 , but I don’t think it would have done when I was fifteen … and the kids didn’t seem very impressed, saying that they felt as if they were being treated like they were back in the nursery.

Weight-related traumas apart, it was very interesting to see the development of the idea that schools should play a big role in trying to improve children’s health. Unfortunately, it’s gone too far.  There was a report on Sky News this morning about staff at a school in Stoke “monitoring” packed lunches (why, regardless of whether you live in the dinner-eating North or the lunch-eating South, is it always “school dinners” but “packed lunches”) for unhealthy food.  Excuse me?  I don’t think even Stalin made teachers “monitor” packed lunches.

Following that, something much more cheerful – women’s football!   I wrote here about how popular women’s football became, and how it was then banned for years.  The programme is really drawing attention to the gender discrimination in schools throughout much of the twentieth century – not just against pupils but also against teachers, as we saw a female teacher being dismissed because of the marriage bar.  I can remember people of my grandparents’ generation still holding these attitudes when I was a kid – that it was wrong for a married woman, who had a husband to support her, to take a job that could go to a man or to a single woman.  The programme made it seem like out-and-out discrimination, and of course it was, and it seems horrifying now; but unemployment in some areas during the Depression was very high, and people were desperate.  But I think the BBC were scared to risk narking the PC brigade by making that point!

We also saw the girls having to learn domestic science, whilst the boys learnt physics and chemistry – subjects that were really being pushed at this time, with the Great War having shown up how poor science education was in British schools, compared to German schools. Germany still seems to do far better than us in that department!

I wrote about the domestic science debate when I waffled about the first episode, here, so for a different angle on it, how about what Girls’ Own books have to say?  Chalet School girls learn both general science and domestic science.  Hooray!   However, there’s the most appalling speech in which the science teacher tells the girls that they all need to learn domestic science so that they can be good wives and mothers, and, if the Good Lord doesn’t bless them with husbands and kids, they can help those he has so blessed!   The headmistress in the Dimsie books informs the Head Girl that the role of girls is to be the mothers of the future soldiers of the nation, and a young woman in the Abbey books is told that she should abandon her plans to go to university and take a course in childcare instead.  Immediate post-war eras tend not to be good for women …

Sara Cox took the next lesson, which involved listening to a BBC programme on the wireless. My late grandad, bless him, was still referring to the radio as “the wireless” in the 1980s.  We didn’t listen to BBC programmes on the radio, by my day, but I can remember watching BBC “education” programmes on TV, when I was 6 or 7.  There was a series called Zig Zag which was about history.  Evidently being a budding historian even when I was in the infants, I loved Zig Zag!  And there was another programme which did a countdown from 10 to 0 before the actual content came on.  We used to count along with it, and then yell “Blast off” instead of “Zero”.  It seemed very funny at the time 🙂 .  Then there was Me and You.  The theme tune went “You and me, me and you,” … and you could always guarantee that some of the class (usually the boys) would sing “Poo and wee, wee and poo”.  I’m afraid we didn’t always have very good manners at our primary school 🙂 .

However, the inter-war radio programmes seemed more concerned with trying to get kids to use “received pronunciation”. As the BBC pointed out, it really was well-meant, given that class and regional prejudice meant that talking posh would give people a better chance of getting a good job, but it didn’t half seem snobbish, and neither Sara nor the kids took it very seriously.  This again is something that comes up in Girls’ Own books, where regional accents are very much frowned on.

However, Girls’ Own books, especially those by Elsie J Oxenham, and to some extent those by Elinor M Brent-Dyer, are very keen on the folk revival and, in particular, on country dancing!   The BBC explained a bit about the background to this, and we then saw kids learning some country dances.  I’d love to have done that, instead of horrible PE lessons with the aforementioned sadistic PE teacher.  She was probably very nice when she was with her family and friends, but she absolutely had it in for fat kids who were useless at PE!  It looked like really good fun – and it’s keeping old traditions alive.  OK, a lot of the “folk” stuff was actually a Victorian invention, but even so!

This was followed by a brief flirtation with the forest schools movement, with kids being let loose in the woods and left to their own devices. Then there was just a very brief section about schooling during the Second World War.  The First World War was pretty much skipped over, and the Second World War was only given a few minutes – gas masks being given out, and some talk about the Dig For Victory campaign.  That was a shame, but I suppose there are a lot of programmes about life in wartime, and the makers of this series decided to focus more on other things instead.

The message that’s coming out through every topic that’s been covered is just how close the tie is between schooldays and social attitudes. It’s quite frightening, really.  OK, kids aren’t getting brainwashed like they are under some regimes, but the education system is constantly being adjusted to reflect the prevailing attitudes of the times, whether that’s about the curriculum or whether it’s about accents or weight or gender roles.  Most of that’s done with genuinely good intentions, but it can be quite problematic in the long-term if you’re made to feel that you’re inferior because you’re overweight or because you speak with a regional accent, or that you can’t study certain subjects because you’re a girl.  And, whilst the introduction of School Certificates was a positive move, how often has the exam system been mucked around with since then?  The debates never end!!

Back in Time for School – BBC 2

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What a brilliant start to the series.  I didn’t think it could possibly be as good as Back in Time for Tea, but it was.  I was expecting all the usual clichés about Victorian/Edwardian schoolrooms – harsh discipline, uncomfortable wooden benches, et al – but this included all sorts, from explosive science experiments to junior temperance societies to self-defence classes for would-be suffragettes!   OK, the average school day in the 1890s/1900s/1910s wouldn’t have been quite that exciting, but it made for fascinating watching.  The programme also addressed some of the issues arising from the controversial 1902 Education Act.

The stars of the programme are some of the teachers and pupils (sorry, “students”!) from a school in Birmingham.  The pupils are 15-year-olds.  Making the programme with younger kids probably wouldn’t have worked as well, but it did present a problem because, in 1895, only 4% of 15-year-olds were still at school.  They’d got round this saying that it was a higher grade school, which existed with a view to encouraging the teaching of science – for girls as well as boys, in mixed gender classes.  We got to see a rather exciting explosive science experiment, and were told that there were plenty of accounts from the time of classrooms being set on fire or kids being overcome by chlorine fumes!    (When I left school, there was still a mark on the ceiling in the W9 science lab from when our class’s science teacher put too much potassium in the sulphuric acid during an experiment in the second year, and there was a huge explosion.  It was very exciting!)  Not at all what you’d associate with schooling in the 1890s, though.

Assembly was rather more what you’d associate with a Victorian school, though.  I’d have been fine with having a picture of the Queen on the wall 🙂 , but I wouldn’t have been too impressed with the crucifix – talk about brainwashing.  A list of school rules, which included neatness especially for girls (typical!), and pupils only being allowed to write with their right hand.  Later, we saw one lad, who was left-handed, having his left hand strapped behind his back.  I’m not sure when that sort of thing was done away with, but I can remember a relative who wasn’t born until after the First World War telling me that it’d happened to her.  It also mentioned attendance prizes, which was interesting because they’ve made a comeback of late.

Then on to lesson time.  The teacher did have a cane, but it was explained that, contrary to the popular image of Victorian kids being given six of the best for the slightest misdemeanour, there were strict rules about caning, which was only supposed to be used as a punishment of last resort.  Everyone was made to take some brimstone and treacle!   And the kids all had to have their hands inspected for cleanliness, and were sent off to wash them if they didn’t pass muster – which sounds patronising but was actually very sensible, at a time when many diseases were endemic and difficult to treat.  Schools had definitely stopped doing that by my day, but we still had cleanliness inspections at Brownies in the 1980s.  And kids still occasionally got smacked when I was at primary school.  At least it was only smacking: the headmaster at my cousins’ primary school hit kids with a slipper!  Hmm.

We also got to see the girls playing tennis.  It was explained that sports facilities at state schools were very limited at this time, but that – it was in Birmingham, remember! – people from all backgrounds were able to use tennis courts made available by the Cadburys.  It wasn’t the occasion for a discussion on the development of sportswear, which is a very interesting subject in itself, but the girls did have to play in corsets and long skirts.

There followed the controversial bit – the geography lessons about trying to “civilise” “savages” in the colonies.  The teacher clearly felt very uncomfortable about it, but it was interesting to hear all the pupils say that they thought it was important to be aware that these attitudes not only existed but were taught in schools.  They showed a far more sensible and mature attitude than people who want to try to rewrite history by banning any mention of racist views held in the past.

Whilst the map on the wall, with everywhere that was part of the Empire marked in pink, was obviously intended to promote ideas of Empire, at least they had a map on the wall, to show where different countries were.   Most of what we learnt in school geography lessons was about rock formations, the causes of earthquakes, and people growing carrots.  We even had to draw a picture of some carrots, which might be fine when you’re about six but really isn’t when you’re eleven!  And the teacher made a sarcastic remark about how bad my drawing was.  I ended up dropping geography when we took our options for GCSE, because I wanted to learn about different countries and different cultures (which I’ve done from history books), not draw pictures of carrots!  Honestly, I think we learnt more about different countries from our 1986 World Cup Panini sticker albums than we did in school geography lessons.  So I think that having a world map on the classroom wall is a very good idea!

Then on to 1902 – and the changes brought about by the 1902 Education Act.  The programme didn’t go into all the social and political background to it, but there was a lot going on at this time.  There was a lot of debate, and there’d been a big court case, over whether or not the state should be funding secondary education.  The Booth and Rowntree reports had raised awareness of the very severe levels of poverty in which many people were living.  The poor physical condition of many of the working-class men volunteering to fight in the Boer War had persuaded even those who thought poverty wasn’t their problem that it was time for change, because malnutrition was now seen as a threat to national security.

So, in 1902, school boards in England and Wales were abolished, and replaced by local education authorities under the control of the local councils. Councils were encouraged, though not compelled, to subsidise existing grammar schools and to provide free places for working-class children, and to set up new secondary schools … although it wasn’t compulsory, and not that many free secondary school places were made available even then.  And there was a huge row over faith schools, with some Noncomformists refusing to pay their taxes because they said they didn’t see why they should be paying for Anglican and Catholic schools.

Anyway, none of that really came into the programme, but the changes in the curriculum certainly did.  Out went explosive science experiments.  In came Latin for boys, and domestic science for girls.

The debate over domestic science lessons in schools raged all through the Edwardian era, and all through the inter-war era, in state and private schools alike.  Would teaching cookery in schools help to reduce malnutrition (as today, conveniently ignoring the effect of the price of food on what people ate)?  Was it the responsibility of schools to teach cookery, or was that the responsibility of families?  And, in particular, what about the educational disadvantage at which girls were being put at by spending lesson time learning about “housewifery” whilst boys were studying academic subjects?

Later on, things seem to have changed, so that boys would be doing woodwork and metalwork whilst girls were doing domestic science, but not at this point.  Interestingly, everyone seemed to feel that the girls had got the best deal.  As they all pointed out, the domestic science lessons, covering cooking, sewing, laundry and even wallpapering, taught useful life skills.  Job skills as well, in those days: a high proportion of girls would’ve gone into service.  Their lessons seemed like good fun, as well!   At my school, everyone dreaded needlework lessons.  Incidentally, needlework and cookery were still only for girls in my day, and this was in the late ’80s/early ’90s!  They were not taught at the boys’ school.  We did all do Latin, though.  I was quite good at Latin, whereas I was useless at needlework and nearly set fire to the cookery room on two separate occasions.

Anyway, to get back to the subject of needlework, our teachers thought that kids didn’t regard it as a proper subject and didn’t take it seriously, so they were very strict and were always yelling at people. The lessons in this programme looked quite nice, though: the girls sat round in a circle and embroidered samplers, and it was all quite sociable and relaxing.  I was amazed to hear 15-year-old girls saying that they’d never threaded a needle before, though.  I know I’m past it and out of touch, but seriously?

Playground games featured, as well, and everyone felt that they’d helped them to get to know their classmates better.  We didn’t play playground games at secondary school, but we did at primary school, and they were great – definitely a “bonding” experience!   Some of the games were for small groups, but things like Tiggy Cross and Kickstone 123 and the game where someone spins round with a skipping rope and everyone has to jump over it (which got banned at least once a week, because someone was always getting hit by the wooden end of the skipping rope), could be played by a lot of people at once, and, with it being a small school, that meant that a pretty high proportion of kids could play together.

Secondary schools tend to be very cliquey, and it would’ve been good to’ve had that “bonding” time.  Not convinced about sewing samplers, though!  And Latin … well, the idea was to try to make elementary schools more like public schools.  How useful was a classical education going to be to boys who were probably going to go into a trade?  Come to that, how much would public schoolboys use Latin in their everyday adult life, either?

My school, which was all-girls, only had one curriculum at the time.  And, yes, it did include domestic science!  But I know that, at one time, the boys’ school offered a choice between a classical education curriculum and one that was more modern/practical.  Offering a choice would have been unusual, though.  Over a century on, the school curriculum and the exam system still keep getting mucked around with by politicians and civil servants and educational theorists … .  I personally would always choose Latin over either science or home economics, though!  I suppose that’s the whole problem: all kids are different, and there’s no practical way for any school to offer a curriculum that suits everyone.

Like playground games, Empire Day looked like good fun.  Isn’t it still a public holiday in some places – I think parts of Australia? – as Queen Victoria’s birthday.  Yes, all right, all right, it was pushing a political agenda, but I’m not sure that most people were thinking about that – more about the party and the food and the half-day off school.  I used to read about the Fourth of July celebrations in the Little House on the Prairie books, and feel quite jealous that we didn’t have any sort of school gala occasions like that.  It doesn’t have to be political.  Wasn’t Melbourne Cup Day a half-holiday in the Australian state of Victoria, before it became a full day holiday?  Maybe we could have … I don’t know, the day before the Cup Final?  Well, everyone’s always saying that the prestige of the Cup needs raising again!  Or a day during Wimbledon – that would definitely work for me!  There’s certainly room for some sort of annual national celebration.  Just maybe one minus any sort of political agenda.

Less excitingly, school dinners – part of the package of reforms, along with Old Age Pensions and National Insurance, introduced by the Liberal government elected on a landslide in 1906.  The food in school stories always sounded so nice, but school dinners in my day (this was at primary school, because we were allowed to take our own food after the first two years of secondary school) were notoriously vile.  I was sure that the food at our school was particularly bad, but everyone I knew who went to other schools said the same about their school dinners.  There was a song about them, to the tune of Frere Jacques, which everyone knew.  “School dinners, school dinners, concrete chips, concrete chips.  Soggy semolina, soggy semolina.  I feel sick.  Toilet, quick.  Whoops, too late.  I’ve done it on the plate.”  Sorry, couldn’t resist that!

OK, enough negativity!  School dinners meant that each child was at least guaranteed one decent-sized, hot, meal a day.  It wasn’t until the Butler reforms of 1944 that schools were obliged to ensure that meals met certain nutritional requirements, but the food that was served in the programme, whilst no-one was very impressed with it, would at least have been filling.  And, as one of the teachers said, there was something quite satisfactory about everyone stopping to have a multi-course sit down meal, rather than grabbing a quick sandwich on the run.

After that, all sorts of things came along!  Whilst the girls were doing wallpapering, the boys did rifle practice!  Initially as a form of sport (I suppose we should be grateful that at least they were only being taught to shoot at targets!), and then, as tensions rose in the years leading up to the outbreak of the Great War, as a form of national defence training, in the way that men in medieval and Tudor times were supposed to attend archery practice.  It was quite sobering to think how many of the teenage boys who probably thought that being allowed to play with guns at school was a brilliant jolly jape ended up dead in some corner of a foreign field a few years later.

No shooting lessons for girls, but the girls did get to have self-defence classes – something along the lines of ju-jitsu – so that they could defend themselves if threatened with violence whilst on suffragette marches!   There’s definitely an argument that schools should teach self-defence.

And there was the Band of Hope – the junior branch of the Temperance movement.  There is, famously, still a Temperance bar in Rawtenstall.  I’ve never actually been there: I must go some time.  And you can still buy Temperance drinks.  There are the Fitpatrick’s ones, which come from Haslingden, and the Fentimans drinks which come somewhere in the Newcastle area.  Didn’t Vimto begin life as a Temperance cordial?  Dandelion and burdock!  Sarsaparilla.  Ginger beer, beloved of Enid Blyton characters (not that I can imagine any of them being Temperance advocates).   None of those particular drinks were offered to the pupils in the programme, but some of the ones that were went down quite well.

We were told that around 10% of kids in that age group belonged to the Band of Hope at that time, and that it was a big social thing.  Whilst I quite appreciate the problems associated with alcohol consumption, I’ve never been very keen on the idea of the Temperance movement.  It’s the image of it being a load of patronising do-gooders who wanted to deprive the working-classes of having a bit of pleasure in life.   But I could certainly see the attraction of the socialising and the marches and rallies.  At the same time, it made me feel a bit uneasy … there’s always something a bit worrying about using fun and games to attract kids into a movement promoting a certain way or view of life, whether it’s temperance or politics or religion or anything else.  Sorry for being grumpy!

It was fun, though!  And, like a lot of the rest of the programme, it was worlds away from what immediately springs to mind when you think of a late Victorian or Edwardian school.  OK, this had to be entertaining, and the average school day for the average Victorian/Edwardian schoolkid would not have involved explosions or self-defence classeses, but none of it was made up.  Really good start to what looks like being another unmissable “Back in Time for …” series.