The King of Warsaw – All 4


This is something different.  It’s in Polish with English subtitles, so requires a lot of concentration, but it’s interesting.  It’s a crime drama set in Warsaw in 1937, and the protagonist is Jakub Szapiro, a Jewish boxer and member of an organised crime gang, whose aim is to become head of the gang – and therefore be the “King of Warsaw”.   It’s set against a background of clashes, some violent, some just psychological, between right-wing groups and left-wing groups, Catholics and Jews, and secular Jews and ultra-Orthodox Jews.   Meanwhile, a young lad from the ultra-Orthodox community aims to join a gang after the murder of his father.   And Jakub’s wife wants to emigrate to what was then British Mandate Palestine, but Jakub feels that Warsaw is his city and can’t bear the thought of leaving it.

The first episode was really just setting the scene, but it looks promising.  Warsaw was such a mixture of cultures and factions at the time.  And it’s the same issue as with Peaky Blinders – members of a community which is marginalised, but not isolated and set apart by religion, may well be drawn to organised crime.  And at what point do you feel that you’re actually a stranger in your own city, as well as being a stranger from the Establishment?   Without going too far into the unpleasant scenes before the Cup Final, feeling estranged from the Establishment usually leads to a stronger sense of regional identity, and that seems to be what’s happened with Jakub Szapiro – but his wife can see that they’d be safer away from Warsaw, rather than trying to rule it.

A promising start.

World on Fire – BBC 1


At one point during the second episode, we went rather rapidly from Sean Bean wandering along Great Ducie Street and Bury New Road to Nazi bombs reducing poor Warsaw to rubble.  This is certainly an ambitious series, covering storylines across a range of different locations during the early part of the Second World War.  I assume that it’s also an attempt to give screen time to groups who are often under-represented in both wartime dramas and history books: a lot of the action takes place in Poland, and we’ve also got a black gay Frenchman with a white American boyfriend, a French Jewish nurse hiding her identity from the Nazis, a German child with epilepsy, a Polish Catholic child refugee, two members of ENSA, a pacifist and a female war reporter.

There’ve been a couple of scenes that I haven’t been entirely comfortable with, although maybe I’m being oversensitive.   Also, one of the German characters is called Uwe Rosler. Seriously. OK, it’s been spelt Rossler, but come on!  And the fact that there are so many different locations and storylines makes it rather confusing.  Oh, and, speaking of locations, I’m enjoying spotting familiar places.  Strangeways was Strangeways, and Castlefield and the John Rylands Library have also appeared … and I believe that the scenes at Dunkirk, which we haven’t got to yet, were filmed at St Annes.  To get back to the point, it’s not perfect, but it’s not bad – and it’s getting better as the series goes on.

I assumed Harry was going to be a big hero, seeing as the programme started with him being arrested for clashing with Oswald Mosley’s supporters at a BUF rally in Manchester in March 1939, but he spends a lot of time moaning, and has been trying to keep two girls, both of whom are far too good for him, on the go at once. He’s from a well-to-do background, living with his snobbish mother in an extremely large house. Lois, one of his girlfriends, lives in Longsight with her brother Tom, who goes into the Navy, and her dad, played by Sean Bean, who, having suffered shell shock during the First World War, is an avowed pacifist. Incidentally, whilst I accept that Yorkshiremen aren’t big on doing Lancashire accents, could he not at least have tried?!  Julia Brown (Lois)’s attempt at a Manchester accent isn’t bad at all.  Ewan Mitchell (Tom) ‘s leaves a lot to be desired: he sounds more Mendips than Manchester!

Lois and her friend are a singing duet, and join ENSA. I like that. Dame Vera Lynn must be one of the most well-respected figures in the country, but you rarely see ENSA mentioned in either factual or fictional accounts of the Second World War.

Harry’s other girlfriend is Kasia, a Polish girl whom he meets whilst working as a translator in Warsaw. A big part of this series is showing the effect of the war on Poland, and I believe that it’s attracted a lot of interest from the Polish community in Britain. The first time I went to Warsaw, way back in 1996, we were shown of a video of the devastation of the city during the war, and its rebuilding afterwards. It really was blown to smithereens.

Unlike in The Aftermath, there’s been no soft-soaping of how the Nazis treated people. We’ve seen Kasia’s dad, with the Polish forces in Gdansk – we were shown the Defence of the Post Office in the Free City of Danzig/Gdansk, which is very well-known in Polish wartime history – and her mum, in her own home, both shot dead at point blank range. Her brother is able to escape, and eventually to join up with Polish forces after spending a long time on the run.  Harry marries Kasia (conveniently forgetting, even once he’s home, to tell either Lois or his mum) so that she’ll be able to accompany him back to Britain, but she chooses to remain behind, pushing her little brother Jan on to the train with him instead – and we see Jan’s experiences as a child refugee, including Harry’s mum becoming attached to him and defending him when he’s bullied at school.

Kasia later joins the Polish Resistance. Most viewers will be familiar with the work of the French Resistance, and to some extent the work of the Resistance movements in other Western European countries such as the Netherlands and Norway, but, although we hear about the Polish units serving with the Allied forces, we hear very little about the Resistance movements further east.

We’ve also got a female American reporter, working in Berlin. Reporters in war programmes are usually male, so that’s another tick for diversity.  A major part of her storyline is the problems she’s having in getting reports past the censors, another important issue. Over in Paris (filmed in Wigan!), we’ve got her nephew, a doctor, who’s in a same sex relationship with a gay black French musician. I don’t know how their story’s going to pan out, but this is doing the important job of highlighting the fact that many different groups were persecuted by the Nazis: we still hear relatively little about the treatment of gay people by the Nazis – thousands of gay men died in concentration camps – or the fact that black people were subject to the Nuremberg Laws in the Nazi-occupied territory.  One of the doctor’s colleagues is a Jewish nurse, and I gather that we’re going to see the two of them work together help patients to escape from the Nazis.

Back in Germany, the reporter is friendly with a couple whose child is epileptic, and who are terrified that the authorities will find out.  The Nazis began killing children with disabilities began in 1939, and forced sterilisation of people with conditions including epilepsy began as early as 1933.  This has been gone into in quite some detail – and we’re also seeing how well-intentioned reporting can be dangerous, with the couple terrified that her link to their family will be discovered and their child put in peril as a result.  Again, this is highlighting another facet of the Nazi atrocities, and one which isn’t always given as much attention as it should be.  I’m sorry that there are no Roma characters, but I suppose they could only have so many storylines: there’s a lot to keep up with as it is.

Any dialogue between Polish characters or between German characters has actually been filmed in Polish or German, with English subtitles. I wasn’t sure how well that was going to work – remember Eldorado?! – but it’s actually working very well … although it’s rather annoying if you want to do the ironing or something else at the same time as you’re watching!

So, there are a lot of things to praise … but, as I said, I was uncomfortable with a couple of scenes. There were some very unpleasant scenes outside Auschwitz on Holocaust Memorial Day in January, with far-right groups claiming that the effect of the Nazi occupation on the wider population of Poland is overlooked because there is so much focus on the Jewish Holocaust. And it wasn’t an isolated incident. Two scenes in this programme, one involving Harry’s mother assuming that Jan was Jewish and Harry asking sarcastically if she wanted him to go back and change him for a Jewish child, and one involving the American reporter complaining that the American media would report on the persecution of Jews but not on the situation in Poland in general, came dangerously close to suggesting the same thing. I don’t imagine that that’s what Peter Bowker meant, but it was badly put. Suffering at the hands of the Nazis is not some sort of competition.  Can we not go there, please?

I’m also having a few issues with the German family (the parents with the epileptic child) because of the Uwe Rosler thing. Is a storyline about the Nazis wanting to kill children with medical conditions really the place for football jokes?  And, given that the scriptwriter’s from Stockport, no-one’s telling me that the name isn’t intentional.   Some of the language doesn’t ring very true for 1939 or 1940, either.  But, hey, nothing’s perfect.

I was on holiday when the first two episodes were shown, and have only just caught up.  A new Sunday night 9pm drama usually becomes a major talking point, and this hasn’t, so I assume it hasn’t attracted the sort of viewing figures that the BBC must have been hoping for.  That’s a shame, because it’s worth watching.  I know some people think that there’s too much talk about the Second World War, but there isn’t.  There really, really isn’t.

A Passage to Britain II, Polish refugees in India – BBC 2


There’s been a sizeable Polish community in Manchester, as in many other parts of the UK, since the war. I’ve always been aware of that, right back to when I was at primary school and some of the other kids there had Polish names.  And I knew that there’d been Polish Displaced Persons camps in the UK, one of the largest being at Delamere Park near my mum’s home town of Northwich.  But I have to say that I knew very little about Polish wartime refugees coming to the UK via India; and I don’t think that the makers of this rather interesting series did either, until they came across this sad but fascinating story whilst looking into immigration from India to Britain in the immediate post-war era.

I got the impression that Yasmin Khan – who would be a good presenter if she didn’t seem so keen to present Britain in as negative a light as possible – was expecting to find that most of those sailing on the Asturias, the ship featured in the second programme, in late 1947 were fleeing the horrific violence associated with Partition.  That’s what I’d have been expecting too.  (I did also think we might get a few British people/families who’d spent their entire working lives in India returning to the UK to make a new start in a “home” that they didn’t really know, but we didn’t.)

There were certainly people leaving because of Independence and or Partition. Some of those featured were Sikhs: Partition was about Hindus and Muslims but, especially with most of the violence being in the north, so many Sikhs suffered terribly.  There was a rather nice reference by one Sikh man to his father having previously spent time in Britain in the 1930s and having worked as a market trader alongside Jewish market traders in the East End of London, two religious minority groups together.

There were also a number of Anglo-Indians, a community which tends to be overlooked when discussing this period of history. It’s a confusing term, because “Anglo-Indian” originally meant white British people living in India, with people of mixed heritage being descrived as “Eurasian” – but then, somehow, the meanings changed, and “Anglo-Indian” came to mean people of mixed heritage.  As with so many stories of immigration over the years, there were some sad tales of skilled workers having to take whatever work they could get, often with little relevance to the skills and experience they’d brought with them – but, alongside that, inspiring tales of building up successful businesses.

The part of the programme that most caught the attention, though, was the part focussing on the Polish people travelling on the ship, because it just wasn’t what either the presenter or the viewers would have been expecting.

After the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, but before the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union led to the Soviets joining the war on the Allied side, the Soviets deported large numbers of people, possibly as many as a million, from Soviet-occupied parts of Poland to gulags in Siberia and Kazakhstan. During a temporary amnesty in mid to late 1942, many of those people were able to leave, but it was a long and arduous journey, through Persia.  Some of the young men went into the Polish Armed Forces in Exile.  Civilians, mostly women and children, were taken to various places, mostly parts of the British Empire and the Dominions; and India played a large part in this.

Within India, various authorities were involved – the British colonial authorities, the Polish consul general in Bombay/Mumbai and his wife, and the royal families of some of the princely state. The Maharajah of Nawanagar played a particularly important role: he unfortunately didn’t get a mention in this programme, but I’ve been reading a bit about him.  He set up a camp for Polish refugee children, and there’s a school named after him in Warsaw, and also a “Good Maharajah Square”.  The Maharajah of Kolhapur also set up a camp for Polish refugee children.

We didn’t hear about the maharajahs’ camps, but we did hear how Polish communities were established in India, and we saw pictures of Polish shops and Polish dancing there. Some of the Polish refugees settled in India and spent the rest of their lives there, but the programme was about people coming from India to Britain and, along with many other Poles – there seem to have been about 250,000 in all – who ended up in Britain after the war, the people interviewed had settled here, not wanting to go back to a Poland which by then was under communist rule.

There are so many little-known stories about groups of people displaced during or after the Second World War. Even now, the stories of Stalin’s deportations of the Chechens and the Crimean Tatars aren’t well-known in the West.  Then there were the Germans forced to leave the Breslau area, now Polish Wroclaw … and the repopulation of Wroclaw by Poles who left Lviv/Lvov/Lviv/Lemberg when it became part of Soviet Ukraine.  Just a few examples.  It’s thought that around 1,000 Poles came to Britain via India.

This programme’s hopefully drawn attention to their story – and it’s fascinating how historical research can lead you down paths that you hadn’t set off to go down, and teach you about something that you hadn’t been looking for. You look for stories about people fleeing the violence of Partition between India and Pakistan, and stumble across stories of people deported from Soviet-occupied Poland.  And, amid all the evils of those times, there were wonderful people like those two maharajahs who set up camps for refugee children from a faraway land.  I feel quite bad that I didn’t know about the history of Polish wartime refugees in India.  I’m glad that I do now.